Boundary and reference marks
Marking the plan
All surveys must be marked as appropriate on the ground by bench marks, boundary marks, reference marks and permanent survey marks. The nature of these marks is specified in schedules 1 to 4 Surveying and Spatial information Regulation 2012.
Note For Permanent Marks see Placement of permanent marks page.
A boundary mark by definition means a survey mark of the kind referred to in Schedule 2 Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2012.
If a plan defines parcel boundaries the corners of those boundaries must be marked with boundary marks.
- The position of these marks must be shown on a plan of survey by using the symbol shown in the Conventional Symbols schedule.
- If the mark is a peg as described in schedule 2 Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2012 no further details are required.
- If the mark is not a peg the surveyor must indicate the nature of the mark. See clause 35 Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2012.
- If it is not possible to place a boundary mark a reference mark must be placed and a note provided indicating why a boundary mark was not placed.
- If the corner is liable to be subject to erosion because of a water boundary the mark should be placed on the side boundary, at a safe distance from the corner and the distance to the corner shown on the plan.
- In a rural survey, if a boundary is unfenced:
- the lines that form it must also be marked with lockspits cut in the direction of the boundary from each corner or angle
- the pegs and lockspits must be placed at intervals of not more than 500 metres (if intervisible) or 200 metres (where one cannot be seen from the next).
- In a rural survey, if a fence-post is located on the corner, reference to that post should be indicated on the plan.
Clauses 29, 30 and Schedule 3 Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2012 set out the requirements for the placement of new reference marks in urban and rural subdivisions respectively.
A reference mark:
- must be placed in a position where they are unlikely to be disturbed and remote from the point which they reference.
- must be placed within 30 metres of the point they are referencing.
- must be shown on the plan by using the symbol shown in the Conventional Symbols schedule.
- must be shown at the corner to which it references not at the actual position of the mark. The symbol must be noted with the nature of the mark and include the following details:
- the bearing and distance from the mark to the corner,
- the status of the mark e.g. Found, Not Found, Gone, Disturbed etc. and
- the plan of origin where applicable.
- may not be referenced to more than one point on a plan except as indicated in clause 29(3) Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2012.
Note The use of a texta pen mark on fence posts etc as reference marks is not acceptable.
Note A Permanent Mark (PM, SSM etc.) may also be used as one of the required Reference Marks. As well as depicting the location of the Permanent Mark, the plan should indicate the usual 'double circle' symbol at the corner relevant to the Reference Mark together with an appropriate connection e.g: 'RM SSM 10° 20' 30" - 2.35'.
For an urban survey reference marks are required as follows:
- If the land abuts a road must have a reference mark at each extremity of the land surveyed.
- If a road frontage exceeds 100 metres and there are intervening side boundaries further reference marks must be placed at intervals of 100 metres or less.
- If an existing reference mark is within 10 metres of the extremity of the land another reference mark is not required if that mark is referenced to the extremity.
- If the plan does not abut a road there must be at least two reference marks.
- See Roads information below.
For a rural survey two reference marks are required for each parcel defined on the plan. Further to this reference marks will also be required in the following circumstances:
- If the plan depicts only a partial survey at each terminal of section surveyed.
- If a boundary, which is not a road frontage, exceeds 2,400 metres along that boundary at intervals of not more than 1,500 metres.
- If the land abuts a road at the extremities of the land surveyed.
- If the land is at a road intersection, at the intersection.
- If the land has a frontage to a stream, which is greater than 500 metres, near the intersection of each side boundary and the stream bank. The mark should be referenced to the boundary mark placed at a safe distance from the corner.
- See Roads information below.
Plans for the purpose of creating, redefining or widening a road must connect to reference marks as follows:
- the terminals of the road
- the junction or intersection of other roads. If the corner is cut off or rounded off the mark may be referenced to either end of the base of the triangle, a tangent point or at the point of intersection.
For urban surveys reference marks should also:
- be placed on the same side of the road when practical
- show connections across any road which is variable width
- be placed at each angle, tangent point or terminal of a series of chords unless there is another reference mark within 30 metres.
For rural surveys reference marks should also:
- be placed in pairs throughout the length of the road so that each mark is visible from the adjacent marks
- the distance between adjacent marks must not exceed 1,000 metres
Note For more information on the requirements of placing new reference marks in a new road, see Reference for new roads page.
Easements and Affecting Interests
Plans for the purpose of defining an affecting interest only (excluding easements where the site is described as approximate position) must connect to reference marks as follows.
- When the site of an affecting interest is up to 200 metres in length a reference mark is required at one terminal.
- When the site of an affecting interest is more than 200 metres in length a reference mark is required at each terminal.
- Additional reference marks are required at intervals along the site of not greater than:
- 500 metres for urban surveys
- 1,000 metres for rural survey.
Note For Bench Marks see Definition of stratum lots and easements page.
Schedule 5 Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2012 provides standard symbols which are used on plans to depict various survey marks. These conventional symbols are shown in the schedule below.
|Bench Mark||May be of a type specified in schedule 1 Surveying and Spatial information Regulation 2012|
|Boundary Mark||May be of a type specified in schedule 2 Surveying and Spatial information Regulation 2012|
|Reference Mark||May be of a type specified in schedule 3 Surveying and Spatial information Regulation 2012|
|Permanent Survey Mark||May be of a type specified in schedule 4 Surveying and Spatial information Regulation 2012|
|Trigonometrical Station||May be of a type specified in schedule 4 Surveying and Spatial information Regulation 2012|