Placement of permanent marks

Permanent Marks must be placed or connected to in every survey plan in accordance with Clauses 41, 42 and 43 of the Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2012. They include all marks referred to in SCIMS which can be co-ordinated.

Permanent survey marks must be shown on the plan by using the symbol shown in the Conventional Symbols schedule (Trigonometrical Stations have their own symbol) and a description and unique number as provided by SCIMS.

PM Permanent Mark
SS (or SSM) State Survey Mark
TS Trigonometrical Station
CP Mapping Control Point
CR Cadastral Reference Mark
GB Geodetic Bench Mark
MM Miscellaneous Survey Mark

All Permanent Marks shown on the face of the plan must be included in the Schedule of Co-ordinates.

Generally

A permanent survey mark must:

  • be so located as to be suitable for an orientation of the survey and for redefinition of the survey
  • be so located at road junctions, road intersections, road angles or crests of hills as to be visible between other permanent survey marks without obstruction, and to be suitable for subsequent inclusion in the State Control Survey, and
  • be identified in location by a sketch plan of approved standard lodged in the LPI prior to the plan.

Measurements between all permanent marks found or placed, and connections to the survey, must be proved by closed survey see cl.42(3) Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2012.

Note  For the placement of Permanent Survey Marks in plans for easement purposes only see information below.

Urban surveys

A survey that redefines or creates parcels of land in an urban area must be related to no less than:

  • one to 10 parcels – two permanent survey marks
  • 11 to 20 parcels – three permanent survey marks
  • more than 20 parcels – four permanent survey marks (plus one extra mark for each 20 parcels, or part thereof, exceeding 40 parcels.

Further:

  • The permanent survey marks disclosed in a plan of survey must each be connected by direct lines to separate corners of the land surveyed.
  • The distance between any such corner and the permanent survey marks must not exceed 500 metres.
  • If there are two established permanent marks within that distance, connections to those marks must be used in preference to non-established permanent marks even if the latter are closer to the survey
  • No more than two permanent survey marks existing at the time of survey may be included in the total number of marks as set out above.

Rural surveys

A survey that redefines or creates parcels of land in a rural location must be related to no less than:

  • one to 10 parcels – two permanent survey marks
  • 11 to 20 parcels – three permanent survey marks
  • more than 20 parcels – four permanent survey marks, plus one extra mark for each 20 parcels, (or part of 20) by which the number of parcels exceeds 40 parcels.

Further:

  • The permanent survey marks disclosed in a plan of survey must each be connected by direct lines to separate corners of the land surveyed.
  • The distance between any such corner and the permanent survey marks must not exceed 1000 metres.
  • If there are two established permanent marks within that distance, connections to those marks must be used in preference to non-established permanent marks even if the latter are closer to the survey
  • No more than two permanent survey marks existing at the time of survey may be included in the total number of marks as set out above.

Roads

A survey that redefines the frontage of a formed road or is creating a new road must be related to at least two Permanent Survey Marks for each interval of 1,000 metres (urban survey) or 4,000 metres (rural survey) along the road frontage.

Easements

A survey for the purpose of creating an easement which exceeds 200 m must have two or more permanent survey marks for each interval of 2,000 metres (urban surveys) or 4,000 metres (rural surveys) see cl.41(4) Surveying and Spatial Information Regulation 2012.

A survey for the purpose of creating an easement that does not exceed 200 metres must, if permanent marks are available within 300 metres of the easement site, connect to two of those marks.